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mfeat-pixel

mfeat-pixel

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Author: Robert P.W. Duin, Department of Applied Physics, Delft University of Technology Source: [UCI](https://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Multiple+Features) - 1998 Please cite: [UCI](https://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/citation_policy.html) Multiple Features Dataset: Pixel One of a set of 6 datasets describing features of handwritten numerals (0 - 9) extracted from a collection of Dutch utility maps. The maps were scanned in 8 bit grey value at density of 400dpi, scanned, sharpened, and thresholded. Corresponding patterns in different datasets correspond to the same original character. 200 instances per class (for a total of 2,000 instances) have been digitized in binary images. Using this dataset, sampled versions of the original images may be obtained (15 x 16 pixels). ### Attribute Information __Only change w.r.t. version 1: variable format transformed to numeric.__ The mfeatures represent 240 (15 x 16) pixel averages in 2 x 3 windows. ### Relevant Papers A slightly different version of the database is used in M. van Breukelen, R.P.W. Duin, D.M.J. Tax, and J.E. den Hartog, Handwritten digit recognition by combined classifiers, Kybernetika, vol. 34, no. 4, 1998, 381-386. The database as is is used in: A.K. Jain, R.P.W. Duin, J. Mao, Statistical Pattern Recognition: A Review, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence archive, Volume 22 Issue 1, January 2000

241 features

class (target)nominal10 unique values
0 missing
att1numeric6 unique values
0 missing
att2numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att3numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att4numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att5numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att6numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att7numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att8numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att9numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att10numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att11numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att12numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att13numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att14numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att15numeric6 unique values
0 missing
att16numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att17numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att18numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att19numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att20numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att21numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att22numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att23numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att24numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att25numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att26numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att27numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att28numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att29numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att30numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att31numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att32numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att33numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att34numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att35numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att36numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att37numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att38numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att39numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att40numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att41numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att42numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att43numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att44numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att45numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att46numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att47numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att48numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att49numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att50numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att51numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att52numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att53numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att54numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att55numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att56numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att57numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att58numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att59numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att60numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att61numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att62numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att63numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att64numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att65numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att66numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att67numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att68numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att69numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att70numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att71numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att72numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att73numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att74numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att75numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att76numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att77numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att78numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att79numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att80numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att81numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att82numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att83numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att84numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att85numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att86numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att87numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att88numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att89numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att90numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att91numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att92numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att93numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att94numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att95numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att96numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att97numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att98numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att99numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att100numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att101numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att102numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att103numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att104numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att105numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att106numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att107numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att108numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att109numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att110numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att111numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att112numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att113numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att114numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att115numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att116numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att117numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att118numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att119numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att120numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att121numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att122numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att123numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att124numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att125numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att126numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att127numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att128numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att129numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att130numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att131numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att132numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att133numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att134numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att135numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att136numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att137numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att138numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att139numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att140numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att141numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att142numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att143numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att144numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att145numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att146numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att147numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att148numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att149numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att150numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att151numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att152numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att153numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att154numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att155numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att156numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att157numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att158numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att159numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att160numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att161numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att162numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att163numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att164numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att165numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att166numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att167numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att168numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att169numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att170numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att171numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att172numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att173numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att174numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att175numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att176numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att177numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att178numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att179numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att180numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att181numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att182numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att183numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att184numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att185numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att186numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att187numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att188numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att189numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att190numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att191numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att192numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att193numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att194numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att195numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att196numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att197numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att198numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att199numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att200numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att201numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att202numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att203numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att204numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att205numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att206numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att207numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att208numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att209numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att210numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att211numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att212numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att213numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att214numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att215numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att216numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att217numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att218numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att219numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att220numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att221numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att222numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att223numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att224numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att225numeric7 unique values
0 missing
att226numeric5 unique values
0 missing
att227numeric5 unique values
0 missing
att228numeric5 unique values
0 missing
att229numeric5 unique values
0 missing
att230numeric5 unique values
0 missing
att231numeric5 unique values
0 missing
att232numeric5 unique values
0 missing
att233numeric5 unique values
0 missing
att234numeric5 unique values
0 missing
att235numeric5 unique values
0 missing
att236numeric5 unique values
0 missing
att237numeric5 unique values
0 missing
att238numeric5 unique values
0 missing
att239numeric5 unique values
0 missing
att240numeric5 unique values
0 missing

62 properties

2000
Number of instances (rows) of the dataset.
241
Number of attributes (columns) of the dataset.
10
Number of distinct values of the target attribute (if it is nominal).
0
Number of missing values in the dataset.
0
Number of instances with at least one value missing.
240
Number of numeric attributes.
1
Number of nominal attributes.
-0.69
First quartile of skewness among attributes of the numeric type.
4.03
Mean of means among attributes of the numeric type.
2.23
First quartile of standard deviation of attributes of the numeric type.
1
Average class difference between consecutive instances.
Average mutual information between the nominal attributes and the target attribute.
Second quartile (Median) of entropy among attributes.
3.32
Entropy of the target attribute values.
An estimate of the amount of irrelevant information in the attributes regarding the class. Equals (MeanAttributeEntropy - MeanMutualInformation) divided by MeanMutualInformation.
-1.55
Second quartile (Median) of kurtosis among attributes of the numeric type.
0.12
Number of attributes divided by the number of instances.
10
Average number of distinct values among the attributes of the nominal type.
4.1
Second quartile (Median) of means among attributes of the numeric type.
Number of attributes needed to optimally describe the class (under the assumption of independence among attributes). Equals ClassEntropy divided by MeanMutualInformation.
-0.04
Mean skewness among attributes of the numeric type.
Second quartile (Median) of mutual information between the nominal attributes and the target attribute.
10
Percentage of instances belonging to the most frequent class.
2.45
Mean standard deviation of attributes of the numeric type.
-0.18
Second quartile (Median) of skewness among attributes of the numeric type.
200
Number of instances belonging to the most frequent class.
Minimal entropy among attributes.
0
Percentage of binary attributes.
2.62
Second quartile (Median) of standard deviation of attributes of the numeric type.
Maximum entropy among attributes.
-1.92
Minimum kurtosis among attributes of the numeric type.
0
Percentage of instances having missing values.
Third quartile of entropy among attributes.
18.12
Maximum kurtosis among attributes of the numeric type.
1.18
Minimum of means among attributes of the numeric type.
0
Percentage of missing values.
-0.68
Third quartile of kurtosis among attributes of the numeric type.
6.28
Maximum of means among attributes of the numeric type.
Minimal mutual information between the nominal attributes and the target attribute.
99.59
Percentage of numeric attributes.
4.93
Third quartile of means among attributes of the numeric type.
Maximum mutual information between the nominal attributes and the target attribute.
10
The minimal number of distinct values among attributes of the nominal type.
0.41
Percentage of nominal attributes.
Third quartile of mutual information between the nominal attributes and the target attribute.
10
The maximum number of distinct values among attributes of the nominal type.
-2.34
Minimum skewness among attributes of the numeric type.
First quartile of entropy among attributes.
0.38
Third quartile of skewness among attributes of the numeric type.
4.3
Maximum skewness among attributes of the numeric type.
0.69
Minimum standard deviation of attributes of the numeric type.
-1.77
First quartile of kurtosis among attributes of the numeric type.
2.73
Third quartile of standard deviation of attributes of the numeric type.
2.89
Maximum standard deviation of attributes of the numeric type.
10
Percentage of instances belonging to the least frequent class.
200
Number of instances belonging to the least frequent class.
3.35
First quartile of means among attributes of the numeric type.
0
Standard deviation of the number of distinct values among attributes of the nominal type.
Average entropy of the attributes.
0
Number of binary attributes.
First quartile of mutual information between the nominal attributes and the target attribute.
-0.83
Mean kurtosis among attributes of the numeric type.

12 tasks

9098 runs - estimation_procedure: 10-fold Crossvalidation - target_feature: class
0 runs - estimation_procedure: 33% Holdout set - evaluation_measure: predictive_accuracy - target_feature: class
0 runs - estimation_procedure: 10 times 10-fold Crossvalidation - target_feature: class
0 runs - estimation_procedure: 33% Holdout set - target_feature: class
0 runs - estimation_procedure: 10-fold Learning Curve - target_feature: class
0 runs - estimation_procedure: 10-fold Learning Curve - target_feature: class
0 runs - estimation_procedure: 10-fold Learning Curve - target_feature: class
0 runs - estimation_procedure: 10-fold Learning Curve - target_feature: class
0 runs - estimation_procedure: 10-fold Learning Curve - target_feature: class
0 runs - estimation_procedure: Interleaved Test then Train - target_feature: class
0 runs - estimation_procedure: 50 times Clustering
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