Standardize features by removing the mean and scaling to unit variance
The standard score of a sample `x` is calculated as:
z = (x - u) / s
where `u` is the mean of the training samples or zero if `with_mean=False`,
and `s` is the standard deviation of the training samples or one if
Centering and scaling happen independently on each feature by computing
the relevant statistics on the samples in the training set. Mean and
standard deviation are then stored to be used on later data using the
Standardization of a dataset is a common requirement for many
machine learning estimators: they might behave badly if the
individual features do not more or less look like standard normally
distributed data (e.g. Gaussian with 0 mean and unit variance).
For instance many elements used in the objective function of
a learning algorithm (such as the RBF kernel of Support Vector
Machines or the L1 and L2 regularizers of linear models) assume that
all features are centered aroun...