OpenML
Filter results by:
analcatdata A collection of data sets used in the book "Analyzing Categorical Data," by Jeffrey S. Simonoff, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2003. The submission consists of a zip file containing two…
104 runs0 likes4 downloads4 reach7 impact
52 instances - 10 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
737 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach8 impact
303 instances - 14 features - 2 classes - 6 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
631 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach8 impact
1000 instances - 6 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
866 runs1 likes11 downloads12 reach9 impact
7129 instances - 6 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
782 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach7 impact
70 instances - 8 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
988 runs0 likes9 downloads9 reach7 impact
100 instances - 11 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
766 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach7 impact
55 instances - 3 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
812 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach8 impact
250 instances - 26 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
802 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach8 impact
662 instances - 4 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
746 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach8 impact
250 instances - 26 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
792 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach8 impact
662 instances - 4 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
789 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach7 impact
100 instances - 26 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
853 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach8 impact
250 instances - 6 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
806 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach8 impact
500 instances - 6 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
791 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach8 impact
250 instances - 11 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
1823 runs0 likes9 downloads9 reach7 impact
120 instances - 3 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
1024 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach7 impact
100 instances - 11 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
734 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach7 impact
74 instances - 28 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
775 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach7 impact
43 instances - 3 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
511 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach8 impact
185 instances - 4 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
680 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach8 impact
1945 instances - 19 features - 2 classes - 1133 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
970 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach7 impact
100 instances - 11 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
800 runs0 likes9 downloads9 reach8 impact
209 instances - 8 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
620 runs0 likes10 downloads10 reach8 impact
1000 instances - 51 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
723 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach8 impact
418 instances - 19 features - 2 classes - 1239 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
1059 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach8 impact
264 instances - 3 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
752 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach7 impact
48 instances - 5 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
756 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach8 impact
310 instances - 9 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
102 runs0 likes3 downloads3 reach8 impact
527 instances - 39 features - 2 classes - 560 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
112 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach7 impact
42 instances - 11 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
118 runs0 likes3 downloads3 reach8 impact
228 instances - 10 features - 2 classes - 20 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
119 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach7 impact
50 instances - 5 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
814 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach8 impact
500 instances - 11 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
806 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach8 impact
250 instances - 26 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
760 runs0 likes13 downloads13 reach8 impact
1156 instances - 6 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
1088 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach7 impact
132 instances - 4 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
773 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach7 impact
100 instances - 51 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
762 runs0 likes9 downloads9 reach8 impact
315 instances - 14 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
1173 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach7 impact
100 instances - 6 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
114 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach7 impact
42 instances - 17 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
123 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach7 impact
46 instances - 5 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
744 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach7 impact
130 instances - 10 features - 2 classes - 97 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
767 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach7 impact
76 instances - 7 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
762 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach7 impact
88 instances - 3 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). It converts the numeric target feature to a two-class nominal target feature by computing the mean and classifying all instances with a…
774 runs0 likes9 downloads9 reach8 impact
559 instances - 5 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
744 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach9 impact
7019 instances - 61 features - 2 classes - 43814 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
810 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach8 impact
846 instances - 19 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
736 runs1 likes5 downloads6 reach8 impact
452 instances - 280 features - 2 classes - 408 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
754 runs0 likes10 downloads10 reach9 impact
8844 instances - 57 features - 2 classes - 34843 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
143 runs1 likes11 downloads12 reach8 impact
531 instances - 103 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
1032 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach8 impact
151 instances - 6 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
781 runs0 likes12 downloads12 reach8 impact
5473 instances - 11 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
728 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach8 impact
2000 instances - 241 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% This is a PROMISE Software Engineering Repository data set made publicly available in order to encourage repeatable,…
747 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach7 impact
145 instances - 95 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% This is a PROMISE Software Engineering Repository data set made publicly available in order to encourage repeatable,…
109963 runs1 likes19 downloads20 reach20 impact
15545 instances - 6 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
No data.
747 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach8 impact
369 instances - 9 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
757 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach8 impact
400 instances - 6 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
842 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach8 impact
155 instances - 9 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
676 runs0 likes13 downloads13 reach8 impact
10992 instances - 17 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
794 runs0 likes9 downloads9 reach8 impact
2000 instances - 65 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
722 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach8 impact
683 instances - 36 features - 2 classes - 2337 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
765 runs0 likes12 downloads12 reach8 impact
5620 instances - 65 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
622 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach10 impact
10108 instances - 69 features - 2 classes - 2699 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
106 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach7 impact
76 instances - 46 features - 2 classes - 22 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
733 runs0 likes9 downloads9 reach9 impact
7485 instances - 56 features - 2 classes - 32427 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
103 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach7 impact
107 instances - 13 features - 2 classes - 71 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
104 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach8 impact
379 instances - 9 features - 2 classes - 1368 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
766 runs0 likes11 downloads11 reach8 impact
2000 instances - 217 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
778 runs0 likes9 downloads9 reach8 impact
5000 instances - 41 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
752 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach8 impact
339 instances - 18 features - 2 classes - 225 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
169 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach9 impact
600 instances - 62 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
815 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach8 impact
336 instances - 8 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
140 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach8 impact
194 instances - 30 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
732 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach7 impact
63 instances - 32 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
723 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach8 impact
366 instances - 35 features - 2 classes - 8 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
772 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach7 impact
214 instances - 10 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
748 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach7 impact
148 instances - 19 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
1149 runs0 likes10 downloads10 reach7 impact
138 instances - 3 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
774 runs0 likes9 downloads9 reach8 impact
797 instances - 5 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
746 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach7 impact
72 instances - 4 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
131 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach8 impact
1340 instances - 18 features - 2 classes - 20 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
718 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach8 impact
406 instances - 9 features - 2 classes - 14 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
141 runs0 likes7 downloads7 reach7 impact
500 instances - 24 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
700 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach7 impact
67 instances - 16 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
135 runs0 likes9 downloads9 reach8 impact
3190 instances - 62 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
712 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach8 impact
898 instances - 39 features - 2 classes - 22175 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
701 runs0 likes3 downloads3 reach8 impact
736 instances - 20 features - 2 classes - 448 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
721 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach8 impact
226 instances - 70 features - 2 classes - 317 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
737 runs0 likes9 downloads9 reach8 impact
3772 instances - 30 features - 2 classes - 6064 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
765 runs0 likes12 downloads12 reach8 impact
1728 instances - 7 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
119 runs0 likes4 downloads4 reach7 impact
95 instances - 10 features - 2 classes - 9 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
113 runs0 likes3 downloads3 reach8 impact
366 instances - 6 features - 2 classes - 1 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
687 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach7 impact
52 instances - 24 features - 2 classes - 39 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
777 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach8 impact
625 instances - 5 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
104 runs0 likes3 downloads3 reach7 impact
57 instances - 12 features - 2 classes - 1 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
792 runs0 likes8 downloads8 reach8 impact
2000 instances - 48 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
792 runs0 likes10 downloads10 reach8 impact
214 instances - 10 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
736 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach8 impact
364 instances - 33 features - 2 classes - 80 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
173 runs0 likes6 downloads6 reach16 impact
106 instances - 59 features - 2 classes - 0 missing values
Binarized version of the original data set (see version 1). The multi-class target feature is converted to a two-class nominal target feature by re-labeling the majority class as positive ('P') and…
721 runs0 likes5 downloads5 reach8 impact
412 instances - 9 features - 2 classes - 96 missing values